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See also: Evolution

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Genome Analysis

Making sense of ancient hominin DNA
In the last two months, news outlets have been abuzz with the announcement of what many suggested was a new hominin species.
Genome of Extinct Siberian Cave-dweller Linked to Modern-day Humans
Sequencing of ancient DNA reveals new hominin population that is neither Neanderthal nor modern human.
Fossil Finger DNA Points to New Type of Human
Continued study of an approximately 40,000 year old finger bone from Siberia has identified a previously unknown type of human — one that may have interbred with the ancestors of modern-day Melanesian people.

Human Fossil Record

BBC News: Ancient humans, dubbed 'Denisovans', interbred with us
Scientists say an entirely separate type of human identified from bones in Siberia co-existed and interbred with our own species.
BBC News: Stone tools 'change migration story'
A research team reports new findings of stone age tools that suggest humans came "out of Africa" by land earlier than has been thought.
BBC News: Fossil links humans and monkeys
Scientists find the skull of a 29m-year-old primate, shedding light on when our evolutionary line diverged from monkeys.
Understanding Evolution: Making Sense of Ancient hominin DNA
News outlets have been abuzz with the announcement of what many suggested was a new hominin species.
BBC News: To mate, or not to mate: The Neanderthal question
There are moments in science when spectacular new evidence stops us in our tracks and makes us think and rethink.
Science AAAS: Ardipithecus ramidus
Science magazine, in its 2 October 2009 issue, presents 11 papers describing an early hominid species, Ardipithecus ramidus, and its environment. These 4.4 million year old hominid fossils sit within a critical early part of human evolution, and cast new light on the evolution of human limbs and locomotion, the habitats occupied by early hominids, and the nature of our last common ancestor with chimps. Science magazine is making access to this extraordinary set of materials FREE (non-subscribers require a simple registration).
Discovery Channel: Discovering Ardi
Interactive page covering what some believe to be a 'missing-link' between humans and apes, Ardipithecus ramidus. Includes videos, galleries and information (requires the latest version of Adobe Flash).
BBC News: Fossil finds extend human story
Fossils of A. ramidus were first found in Ethiopia in 1992, but it has taken 17 years to assess their significance. Independent experts in the field are struck by how primitive Ardipithecus appears compared with the Australopithecines, another group of hominid (human-like) creatures from Africa that lived slightly nearer to us in time. And because many of Ardipithecus' traits do not appear in modern-day African apes, it suggests this common ancestor may have existed much further back in time than had previously been supposed - perhaps seven or nine million years ago.
BBC News: Oldest human skulls found
Three fossilised skulls unearthed in Ethiopia are said by scientists to be among the most important discoveries ever made in the search for the origin of humans.
Becoming Human
View the documentary on becoming human. Includes latest news and views, as well as a glossary and other resources.
Cavemen-Human Evolution
This BBC website lets you journey through time from primates to modern people.
Dmanisi fossils - Homo georgicus
This site looks at the oldest Hominid site found out side of Africa.
Early Human Evolution
Easy to read and well presented with information on early transitional humans, Homo erectus, and early human culture.
Hominid Species
Hosted by Talk Origins Archive, these pages briefly list the various hominid species found.
Human Evolution
Learn about the patterns of hominid dispersal, the human fossil record, the hominid brain, and hominid tools. A well presented web site, well worth a look.
Human Evolution: Skulls
The ancestors of today's modern apes (gorillas, orangutans, gibbons, chimpanzees and humans) first appeared in the fossil record about 27 million years ago. By examining their skulls we can explore characteristics which reflect their evolutionary relationships. click on the virtual skulls section to view interactive 3D versions of many skulls
Human Origins and Evolution Page
This page was established by Professor Jeanne Sept to maintain links to this constantly growing scientific database, and teaching resources for her students taking the Human Origins and Evolution in Africa course.
Peter Brown's Australian and Asian Palaeoanthropology
Learn about the sites and human hominid fossils found in the Australasian area. Also looks at the human origins of Asia and Australia. Also includes research and teacher resources.
BBC NEWS | 'Proof' our brains are evolving
By comparing modern man with our ancestors of 37,000 years ago, a Chicago University team has discovered big changes in two genes linked to brain size.
BBC NEWS | Earliest 'human footprints' found
The earliest footprints showing evidence of modern human foot anatomy and gait have been unearthed in Kenya.
BBC NEWS | 'Peking Man' older than thought
Iconic ancient human fossils from China are 200,000 years older than had previously been thought, a study shows.
BBC NEWS | Age of ancient humans reassessed
Two skulls originally found in 1967 have been shown to be about 195,000 years old, making them the oldest modern human remains known to science.
Stone Age Institute
The Stone Age Institute is a non-profit organization devoted to the study of technology, adaptation and evolution in human prehistory.
The Evidence for Human Evolution
Part of the Talk Origins Archive, this site includes hominid fossils that are considered important either for their scientific or historic interest. Includes photos and a brief description of fossils.
The Human Origins Program
A site maintained by the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, this site gives information on the Human Origins Program, and also provides users with the opportunity to ask questions of the Smithsonian scientists.


NOVA: Read my Lips
Bonobos have many ways of letting other bonobos know what's on their mind. In this slide show, study a random sampling of bonobo facial expressions and gestures
A webside centered on the discovery of a new ancestoral lemur fossil nicknamed 'Ida'.
BBC News: Primate fossil 'not an ancestor'
The exceptionally well-preserved fossil known as "Ida" is not a missing link. The suggestion that Ida [was]... related to the higher primates, namely monkeys apes and humans, was actually a minority view from the start.
Bonobo Sex and Society
The behaviour of a close relative challenges assumptions about male supremacy in human evolution. by Frans B. M. de Waal.
Chimpanzee Hunting Habits
After living for much of the past four years among the chimpanzees of Tanzania's Gombe National Park, anthropologist Craig Stanford believes he may have discovered a model for the origins of human sexual politics.
Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence
The Washington Post web site provides Chapter 1 of the book: "Demonic Males - Apes and the Origins of Human Violence", by Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson.
Duke Lemur Center
The only chimpanzee fossils known to science have been unearthed in Kenya, the journal Nature reports. The three 545,000-year-old chimp teeth were dug up in the country's Tugen Hills and probably belonged to the same individual, the US discoverers say.
BBC NEWS | First chimpanzee fossils found
The Duke Lemur Center was established in 1966 and today is the world's largest sanctuary for rare and endangered prosimian primates. The center's site provides information, photo's and latest prosimian news and updates.
BBC NEWS | Scientists hail stunning fossil
The fossil nicknamed Ida, was launched amid great fanfare at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, by the city's mayor. It was discovered in the 1980s in a fossil treasure-trove called Messel Pit, near Darmstadt in Germany. For much of the intervening period, it has been in a private collection.The preservation is so good, it is possible to see the outline of its fur and even traces of its last meal.
Fossil Primates 1
Describes details of early primates. Lecture notes by Dr. Bill Sellars, Part 1.
Fossil Primates 2
Describes details of early primates. Lecture notes by Dr. Bill Sellars, Part 2.
Order Primates
Learn about primate characteristics and the distinguishing features of the 13 families which make up the primate order.
Physical Anthropology Tutorials
Provided by Palomar College, these 16 tutorials range from Early Theories of Evolution to Evolution of Modern Humans. The tutorials contain detailed discussions, audio files, diagrams and practice quiz's.
Primate Images
Provides a large collection of images of gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans, gibbons, old world monkeys, new world monkeys and prosimians.
Provides information on: Lemurs, Monkeys, Gorrilas, Bonobos and Chimpanzees. Each section is broken up into further headings of related information, including links to more detailed information.

Cultural Evolution

BBC News: Neanderthals were able to 'develop their own tools'
Neanderthals were keen on innovation and technology and developed tools all on their own, scientists say.
BBC News: Oldest evidence of arrows found
Researchers in South Africa have revealed the earliest direct evidence of human-made arrows.
BBC News: Tool-making and meat-eating began 3.5 million years ago
Researchers have found evidence that hominins - early human ancestors - used stone tools to cleave meat from animal bones more than 3.2 million years ago.
BBC News: 'Oldest musical instrument' found
The flutes are the oldest musical instruments found to date. Professor Nicholas Conard of Tubingen University suggests that the playing of music was common as far back as when modern humans spread across Europe. "It's becoming increasingly clear that music was part of day-to-day life," he said. "Music was used in many kinds of social contexts: possibly religious, possibly recreational - much like we use music today in many kinds of settings."
Study of the Early Human Journey
A comprehensive study into the origins of early human migration, using sophisticated laboratory and computer analysis of DNA.
Stone Age Reference Collection
Stone Age Reference Collection (at the institute of Archaeology, University of Oslo) is an excellent site showing stone tool types and the various tool making technologies used to make them.
Stone Pages
An excellent, comprehensive guide to European megaliths (stone circles, dolmens, standing stones, cairns, barrows and hill forts). Provides detailed information on many archaeological sites.
The Chauvet Cave
Describes the recently discovered Paleolithic cave in the Ardéche Region of France that contains more than 300 exceptional paintings and engravings dated between 32,000 and 30,0 o. Excellent photos of the paintings.