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See also: Biotechnology

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General Sites for Genetics

Learn Genetics
An extraordinarily comprehensive site covering all aspects of genetics from basic molecular genetics to stem cell and gene technology. Includes virtual labs and can be accessed using Spanish.
Biotechnology Graphics Gallery
The Graphics Gallery is a series of labeled diagrams with explanations representing the important processes of biotechnology.
Control of Gene Expression
Part of the Online Biology book, this is the Control of Gene Expression Chapter. Included are sections on subjects such as Viruses, The Eukaryotic Chromosome and The Lac Operon.
Gene Almanac
Hosted by the Dolan DNA learning center, this site contains DNA news, useful resources, links, and programs.
Genetic Science Learning Center
Hosted by the University of Utah, this site is a good introduction to genetics, what it means, and how it affects everyday life, and societies in general.
NPG: RNA Interference animation
Nature Publishing Group provides an animated tour through the process of RNA interference.
Online Biology Book
The Online Biology Book, hosted by Estrella Mountain Community College in Arizona, and written and maintained 
Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms
The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) created the Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms to help people without scientific backgrounds understand the terms and concepts used in genetic research.
Virtual Library on Genetics
A very large and comprehensive online genetics resource,displaying information from all aspects of genetics today, Human chromosomes, genetic disorders, Genome project and topics of interest.
Comprehensive Resource for Cell Biology
A resource of links provided by Medical and Nursing Training to assist biology students in researching cell biology. Contains general information about cells, viruses and cancer as well as links to Cell Biology Journals and Organisations.
Scitable: Genetics
By Kenna Shaw, Ph.D. (Advanced Resource)
"This interplay between genetics and society makes it crucial for all of us to grasp the science behind these techniques in order to better inform our decisions at the doctor, at the grocery store, and at home. As we seek to cultivate our understanding of modern genetics, we need to explore not only what we know about genetics, but also what data and evidence support these claims..."
This site also has detailed papers on the following:

Molecular Genetics (DNA)

What is DNA? 
Hosted by the University of Utah, the location and structure of DNA if shown using clear, easy to follow animations.
Beginner's Guide to Molecular Biology
Maintained by the Molecular Biology Notebook Online, this site introduces students of biology to molecular biology.
Super Coiling of DNA
An elegant animation illustrating the supercoiling process in DNA.
DNA Interactive
DNA Interactive is a site that provides dozens of 3D Flash animations describing various aspects of DNA and DNA science. The animations are available in large, small, and with or without sound.
DNA and Molecular Genetics
This web page starts off looking at the early experiments on inheritance using bacteriophages, then proceeds to the structure of DNA, and DNA replication.
DNA from the Beginning
Part of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory web site. learn about DNA structure, function and how material is passed on from one generation to the next
DNA Project to trace human steps
A BBC article on a project spanning five continents is aiming to map the history of human migration via DNA
DNA Workshop
This site contains a shockwave animated exercise about DNA replication and protein synthesis, and links to supporting information.
e! mouse
This site is hosted by a member of the Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium, and presents the latest mouse draft sequence based principally on the whole genome shotgun of around 7x coverage.
Induction of the lac Operon
Illustration of the method by which the lac operon is transcribed, this is part of Access Excellence, the National Health Museum's (USA) website.
Karyotyping Activity
This site deals with the simulation of karyotyping, comparing chromosomes for length, the placement of centromeres, and the location and sizes of G-bands.
Molecular Genetics
This site lists a selection of useful web sites. Topics include: introductory web sites on molecular genetics, DNA technology, genome programs and ethics.
Molecular Genetics of Prokaryotes
This is a section of The Biology Project, and is a selection of problems with multiple choice answers. Correct answers are reinforced with a brief explanation. Incorrect answers are linked to tutorials to help solve the problem.
Primer on Molecular Genetics
From the US Department of Energy, this site examines mapping and sequencing the human genome. Includes a glossary of terms, mapping strategies, how to collect, store and interpret data, and the implication of the human genome project.
Protein Synthesis
Learn all about protein synthesis, the structure of hemoglobin, amino acids, proteins, transcription, and the genetic code.


Provides a fun way to learn about genetics. Try these games online "Dragon Genetics" and "Mendel's Peas". You must have the Shockwave plugin to view and interact with these simulations. Downloads are also available.
BBC News | Variety of dog's coats explained
Just three genes account for the coat types that make canine pets so diverse. A team of researchers report that different combinations of these genes account for all of the various textures.
Cat Color and Fur Length Genetics
This web page covers common cat colors, basic color terminology, and color genetics. Domestic cats exhibit a rich variety of coat patterns and colors. The names given to these colors and patterns are increasingly based on genetic theory.
Cat Colors FAQ: Cat Color Genetics
This FAQ covers common cat colors, basic color terminology, and color genetics.
Drag-and-Drop Genetics
This interactive website lets the student drag and drop symbols to make their own crosses. Includes examples for monohybrid, codominance, sex linkage, and pedigrees.
Gene Interactions
A thorough investigation of gene interactions. Includes: characteristics of x-linked traits, codominant alleles, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, epistasis, polygenic inheritance, pleiotropy, plus more.
Mendel's Paper (English - Annotated)
Experiments in Plant Hybridization (1865) by Gregor Mendel, read at the meetings of February 8th, and March 8th, 1865.
MendelWeb Homework Sets
MendelWeb is an educational resource for teachers and students interested in the origins of classical genetics, introductory data analysis, plant science, the history and literature of science.
National Human Genome Research Institute:
Variants in Three Genes Account for Most Dog Coat Differences
From the poodle's tight curls to the beagle's stick-straight fur. A team led by researchers from the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), part of the National Institutes of Health, reports these findings today in the advance online issue of the journal Science.
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man is a database catalog of human genes and genetic disorders, containing textual information, pictures, and reference information.
The Biology Project: Mendelian Genetics
Part of the Biology Project website, this section provides problem sets and tutorials on monohybrid, dihybrid crosses and sex-linkage.
The Interactive Fly
A cyberspace guide to Drosophila genes and their roles in development.
Scitable: Gene Inheritance & Transmission
By Terry McGuire, Ph.D. (Advanced Resource)
These days, principles of gene inheritance and transmission are all too often presented as 'fact.' Thus, it is easy to forget that the simplest ideas of inheritance and transmission were elucidated by hard work and experimentation. Every student knows something about Mendel and his peas; however, the work of other early geneticists is virtually unknown.

Mutations and Genetic Disorders

This web page discusses aneuploidy. All organisms, tissues or cells that contain n chromosomes or a multiple of it are termed euploid in contrast to sets that have either an additional chromosome or lack one. These are called aneuploid.
Aneuploidy and Deletions
Aneuploidy and Deletions explains the terms of Euploidy and Aneuploidy, and discusses the occurrence of chromosomal deletion.
Blazing a Genetic Trail
Is a site hosted by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute that carries out research on human mutations. Families and scientists join in seeking the flawed genes that cause disease.

Cystic Fibrosis

The various websites listed below looks at the nature of the disease, symptoms and management of the disease.
Down Syndrome
This website on Down Syndrome was created and is maintained by Dr Len Leshin. It is a collection of essay's, articles, and useful links on the subject.
Fragile X Syndrome
Maintained by the National Fragile X Foundation, learn more about Fragile X Syndrome. What is it, symptoms and treatments of this inherited genetic condition.
Mutant Fruit Flies
The fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) in this exhibit show just a few of the mutations that occur in natural fruit fly populations. This interactive site allows you to click on thumbnail size images to see how each fly's phenotype has been altered.
Genetic Mutations
Part of Biology Online's genetics section, this page introduces non-disjunction and Down's Syndrome and illustrates how genetic mutations occur.
Learn about the various types of DNA mutations: single base substitutions, insertions and deletions, duplications and translocations, plus more.
National PKU News
Explains what PKU is, guidelines for treatment, literature survey and a message to students writing papers on PKU.
Part of the Kimball biology site, this page on Polyploidy contains discussion and explanation of polyploidy in plants, origin of polyploidy, polyploidy and speciation and polyploidy in animals.

Sickle Cell Disease

The various websites listed below looks at the nature of the disease, history and origins, symptoms and management of the disease, and treatments.
Variation in Chromosome Number
This web page gives a discussion of aneuploidy, and provides links to other related topics, including euploidy, monoploidy and the phenotypic effects of aneuploidy.

Population Genetics

Genetic Drift
An interactive simulation graph for genetic drift, allele frequency vs generation number, up to 8 different simulations can be shown simultaneously.
Industrial Melanism in Biston betularia
Written in point form, this page explains the phenomenon of industrial melanism and then moves on to Kettlewell's hypothesis, his experiment, observations and conclusion.
Introduction to Evolutionary Biology
Hosted by the Talk. Origins site, this provides a (very long) thorough explanation of what evolution is, common misconceptions about evolution, and the currently understood models by which it is thought to operate.
Random genetic Drift
This site presents a discussion of the significance of Random Genetic Drift in changing allele frequencies in populations.
Scitable: Population & Quantitative Genetics  
By Richard Kliman, Ph.D. (Advanced Resource)
The closely related fields of population genetics and quantitative genetics both focus on the genetic basis of phenotypic variation among the individuals in a population. Population genetics traditionally deals with frequencies of alleles and genotypes, whereas quantitative genetics concentrates on the ways that individual variation in genotype and environment contribute to variance in phenotype. The articles in this topic room represent a blend of both subjects.