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See also: Microbiology

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General Sites for Biotechnology

About Biotechnology: History Timeline
A historical timeline which looks at the progress of Biotechnology to the present day.
Biotech Graphics Gallery
Provides a series of labeled diagrams with explanations representing the important processes of biotechnology.
Biotechnology Online
This site is hosted by the Australian government and contains several animated exercises including DNA profiling, Gene probe and Gene splicing.
Biotechnology Learning Hub (NZ)
This site is an initiative of the Government of New Zealand, and has been developed in collaboration with educators and the biotechnology sector. It features up-to-date examples of biotechnology in practice, along with supporting classroom resources.
Biotechnology Timeline 1977- Present
From the Access Excellence website, this page looks at the dawn of biotechnology starting from 1977 to the present.
Biotechnology & Biological Sciences Research Council
Provides links to a range of research institutes and centers supported or sponsored by the BBSRC.
Dolan DNA Learning Center
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's learning center. Includes a wide variety of resource including 2D and 3D animations, discussions and commentary.
Gene Therapy Advisory Committee
Established in 1993, GTAC advises on the ethical acceptability of proposals for gene therapy research on humans taking account of the scientific merits and the potential benefits and risks.
Genetics Gateway
This site lists a selection of useful web sites. Topics include: PCR Resources, Genomics, Molecular Biology, and Enzymes.
National Centre for Biotechnology Education
The NCBE has detailed information on a range of topics including GM foods, human genetics, protocols and safety.
National Centre for Biotechnology Information
The NCBI is a large site which provides information on current events, has several database services for sequencing, and has links to many other NCBI resources.

Biotechnology Techniques

Separating DNA fragments by Electrophoresis
This excellent resources provides a step by step narrated animation of how to separate DNA by gel electrophoresis. Use the quiz at the end to test your knowledge.
Gel Electrophoresis-Animation
An animated presentation of the steps involved in gel electrophoresis.
DNA Restriction
Contains three slide shows on molecular techniques: PCR, DNA sequence analysis, and gel electrophoresis.
DNA Transformation 1
An account of Cohen and Boyer's historic experiment with techniques to cut and paste DNA to create the first custom-made organism containing recombined or "recombinant" DNA.
DNA Transformation 2
A clear animation about the transformation of E.coli.
Gene Chips
The development of the first DNA chip, which became the basis of techniques for large-scale genomic studies.
Recombinant DNA Technology
This site provides insight into the area of recombinant DNA, using clear diagrams to show processes, including the transformation of E.coli.
Restriction Enzymes
A brief introduction to restriction enzymes, what they are and how they work.
Gel Electrophoresis
Dr. Thomas G. Chasteen at Sam Houston State University
Sequence For Yourself
from PBS
DNA Microarray Method
Davidson College
Recombinant DNA Technology
Animated step by step process of producing recombinant DNA hosted by the University of Delaware.

Biotechnology Processes

Animal and Plant Transformation
A brief introduction to transgenic organisms. Briefly outlines how transgenic animals are produced and the techniques for genetically engineering plants.
How Does DNA Fingerprinting Work?
This site provides the basic background to DNA fingerprinting, what it is and how it is done, and applications and problems associated with fingerprinting.
DNA Workshop
The DNA workshop site provides both textual and animated(Shockwave) information on DNA processes, including replication and synthesis.
Mouse Genome Resources
This site has gathered and displays other links dealing with the mouse genome sequencing process, and genomic resources for the mouse.
The Malaria Genome
In this sub-site Nature publishes the complete genome sequence of Plasmodium falciparum, the main cause of human malaria.
DNA Extraction from Onion
An easy experiment to run in the classroom which gives students an in sight into the procedures for DNA extraction and chemicals used to purify DNA.
DNA Fingerprinting in Human Health and Society
Part of Access Excellence site, look at how DNA fingerprinting is made and the way in which fingerprinting technology is used in diagnosing inherited disorders and in forensic science.
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
The Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory provide a variety of resources and interactive tutorials including:
DNA Learning Center
The DNA Learning Center provides a wealth of information on DNA technologies, applications, and topical articles.
Plasmid Insertion
Part of the Access Excellence web site. Uses a labeled diagram to introduce the process of cloning using a plasmid.
Report on Transgenic Organisms
This article provides a brief summary of each type of agricultural-oriented genetic engineering research that is being conducted in the U.S.
Transgenic Animals
Part of Kimball's Web Site. Learn about transgenic animals and the methods for producing them.

Applications in Biotechnology

Choose from the subheadings below:

Cloning and Tissue Culture

Click and Clone a Mouse 
A fun interactive site where you get to use your knowledge about somatic cell nuclear transfer to clone a virtual mouse.
Conceiving a Clone
An overview of cloning techniques. Looks at the debate on ethics of cloning humans and other animals and also has an online poll.
Cloning and Stem Cell Technology [PDF]
This is a direct link to a PDF file, authored by Amer S. Ahmed of Stanford University. Cloning and Stem Cell Technology: Coping with a New Era. It is a discussion of the ethics and common concerns of cloning.
Cloning Ethics
An article which aims at informing us about the benefits, disadvantages and ethics involved with cloning.
Howstuffworks "How Cloning Works"
Part of the 'How Stuff Works' Science section, this article on cloning is very clearly presented, with diagrams, explanations, examples, and plenty of links for further study.
Human Cloning Foundation
The Human Cloning Foundation promotes education, awareness, and research about human cloning. Emphasis is on the good that human cloning can do.
Roslin Institute Online
This institute is famous for its pioneering work on cloning in mammals and particularly the cloning of Dolly the sheep. Provides detailed information on the cloning research being carried out at the institute.
Stem Cells - Gateway to 21st Century medicine
Published by the Australian Academy of Science this is a section of the NOVA website, and provides an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Links to further information and related topics are provided throughout the page.
Stem Cell Research Foundation
Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation is a biomedical institute which exists to conduct stem cell and related research for diseases and conditions which currently have no effective methods of treatment or cure.
EuroStem Cell Resources provides more than 100 stem cell educational resources and teaching tools. A great teacher resource.
The mammal copiers ­ advances in cloning
Published by the Australian Academy of Science this is a section of the NOVA website, and provides an introduction to the benefits and risks of the development of cloning techniques. Links to further information and related topics are provided.
Tissue Culture in the Classroom
Consists of a list of teacher resources for teaching tissue culture to the class.

Genome Projects

BBC News: 1000 Genomes project maps 95% of all gene variations
Leaders of a global project to catalogue differences in human DNA say they have successfully mapped 95% of all variations.
The Virtual Genome Project
The Virtual Genome Project (VGP) was established as a free resource on the world wide web for people interested in the process of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between bacteria and its ecological and evolutionary significance.
A quick guide to... SEQUENCED GENOMES
The genomes of more than 180 organisms have been sequenced since 1995. The Quick Guide includes descriptions of these organisms and has links to sequencing centers and scientific abstracts.
Genomes Online Database
Genomes Online Database, is a World Wide Web resource for comprehensive access to information regarding complete and ongoing genome projects around the world.
GMO - Compass
A GM information website financially supported by the European Union, within the Sixth Framework Programme. An excellent and up to date resource, with major headings such as News/Current Affairs, Grocery Shopping, Agri-Biotechnology and more.
NHI: Human Genetic Variation
Human Genetic Variation—developed with the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)—is a creative, inquiry-based instruction program, designed to promote active learning and stimulate student interest in medical topics

The Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project
Completed in 2003, the Human Genome Project (HGP) was a 13-year project coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institute of Health.
The Human Genome Project: Mentorship Program
Genetics/Genomics professionals chosen by the NHGRI and the American Society of Genetics have volunteered their time to help increase the understanding of the Human Genome Project and genetics among teachers, students and the public.
A Users Guide to the Human Genome
This guide is a 'hands on' manual for browsing and analysing publicly available sequence data produced by various systematic sequencing efforts.
Genome FAQs File
This web page deals with frequently asked questions dealing with the Human Genome Project.
Human Genome Diversity Project
The Human genome diversity project is an international project which aims to document the genetic variation between different racial and ethnic groups worldwide.
Human Genome Project Information
An extensive site covering a great deal of information about the Human Genome Project.
Map of the Human Genome
An excellent site showing a well presented overview of gene mapping on human chromosomes and the location of inherited human diseases.
NHGRI Education Kit
Online Education Kit: Understanding the Human Genome Project.
The Human Genome Project - Discovering the Human Blueprint
Published by the Australian Academy of Science this is a section of the NOVA website, and provides an introduction to The Human Genome Project. Links to further information and related topics are provided throughout the page.
The Sanger Centre
From this genome research centre find out more about the human genome project, such as which chromosomes have been sequenced, statistics plus more.

Food Biotechnology (includes GM foods)

GMO Safety (Genetic engineering - Plants - Environment)
Obsevations and experimentation with various foods to inhance production and cause speeding up plant processes to encouraging plants to flower earlier.
Australia New Zealand Food Authority - GM Foods
Details on Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA's) assessments of genetically modified foods, what labeling they require, and current proposals and approvals.
GM Food Information
The National Centre for Biotechnology Education (UK) provides a a list of reports and publications relating to GM foods. Includes GMOs in food production, regulations, concerns and benefits of GM foods, lists other websites opposed and for GM foods.
GM Food UK and World News
Lists nearly 900 news stories relating to genetically modified food.
Top 10 Genetically Modified Food Products
Discovery Channel presents the top 10 genetically modified food products.
WHO: Genetically Modified Food
The World Health Organization (WHO) provides a brief introduction into GM foods (including related biotechnology links).
More food, cleaner food ­ gene technology and plants
Published by the Australian Academy of Science this is a section of the NOVA website, and provides an introduction to gene technology and plants. Links to further information and related topics are provided throughout the page.

Medical Biotechnology (includes: gene therapy, xenotransplantation,plus more)

BBC News: Eye gene therapy boost for young
US doctors treating 12 patients with a rare genetic eye disorder were able to significantly improve vision in the youngest. It is hoped that all this work will provide the basis for age-related macular degeneration as well as other genetic sight disorders,
Campaign for Responsible Transplantation
The CRT website discusses some of the negatives of xenotransplantation, and contains links and pages with more information on this subject.
Otago School of Medical Sciences: Transgenic cows producing Myelin
The recent approval for the use of transgenic cows producing the potential anti-multiple sclerosis drug (MBP) has generated a lot of discussion. This site provides links to different points of view from New Zealand.
Transfer and Cloning of the Insulin Gene
Part of the Access Excellence website, this web page examines the procedure of transferring and cloning the insulin gene.
The Transplantation Society of Australia and New Zealand
The TSANZ site is maintained by scientists, doctors, transplant coordinators and research students with an interest in all forms of transplantation. Page links such as Organ Allocation Protocols, Xenotransplantation, and Constitution are available.
TransWeb: All About Transplantation and Donation
TransWeb is a nonprofit educational project which provides a great amount of information regarding transplantation and donation.
Xenotransplantation: Risks, Clinical Potential and Future Prospects
This is an html article on xenotransplantation written by Robert E. Michler, and discusses the need for perseverance in the science and study of clinical xenotransplantation.
Xenotransplantation FDA
A fact sheet hosted by FDA on xenotransplantation. From here access information on the processes and ethics involved.

Reproductive Biotechnology

Atlanta Reproductive Health Centre
Provides useful overview of problems relating to reproduction, including: infertility, ovulation and hormone problems, reproductive surgery, IVF, GIFT, menopause, contraception, STD's, premenstrual syndrome, pregnancy, and childbirth.
BBC News | Genetic advance raises IVF hopes
Researchers have found a potential way to correct an inherited disorder. Working on monkeys, they transferred genetic material needed to create a baby from a defective egg to a healthy one, resulting in healthy births. This treatment would allow women with defective eggs to have a child without using donor eggs.
Fertility NZ
An excellent New Zealand based site, that provides links, resources, faq's and news articles on the subjects of fertility and Infertility.
Frequently Asked Questions About Infertility
A site run by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine that answers commonly asked questions about infertility and how various treatments work.
CRM London (London IVF and Fertility Clinic)
Provides detailed information of reproductive technology including treatments such as IVF, IUI, Blastocyst transfer and other procedures.
London Fertility Centre
This website deals with human reproductive technology. Discusses the details of various treatments such as IVF, GIFT.

Industrial Biotechnology

Biology meets industry ­ genomics, proteomics, phenomics
Published by the Australian Academy of Science this is a section of the NOVA website, and provides an introduction to genomics, proteomics, and phenomics. Links to further information and related topics are provided throughout the page.
Industrial Enzymes
A list of examples of industrial enzymes, including their name, source and application.
Kinds of Cheese and Cheese Products
Excellent  information on the many different types of cheeses and their production.

Issues and Ethics of Biotechnology

This web resource prepared jointly by ANZCCART and the Animal Welfare Science and Bioethics Centre (Massey University) provides information about the use of animals in science, i.e. animal use in research, teaching and testing.
GMO Safety (Genetic engineering - Plants - Environment)
Investigating the environmental impacts of genetically modifiedplants as part of various biosafety research programme. Comparative trial with various conventional varieties. Do we know enough to allow the cultivation or should it be banned as a precautionary measure. Many years of research and countless publications have hugely increased our understanding of the effects on the ecosystem.
Bio IT World: Gene Patents
This strategic insight article by Sue Mayer addresses the question 'Are gene patents in the public interest'.
Forensics, DNA Fingerprinting and CODIS
A discussion regarding the ethics of maintaining DNA profiles in government databases.
Environmental Risk Management Authority (NZ)
ERMA New Zealand are involved with considering application to introduce hazardous substances and new organisms (as well as GMOs) into the country, and monitoring all conditions of these new applications.
Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues -HGP
From here you can read many articles relating to the ethical, legal and social implications surrounding the Human Genome Project.
Genetic Engineering
This Greenpeace site looks at genetically engineered foods, what is it? how is it done? unpredictable effects and other concerns against genetically engineered foods.
Genetic Engineering and It's Dangers
Consists of a long list of links to articles by individuals who believe that genetic engineering is wrong. Articles include issues such as genetically modified foods, biowarfare and human cloning.
Issues and Bioethics
Part of the Access Excellence site, focusing on the breakthroughs in biotechnology leading into the 21st century. Includes the Human Genome Project, plant genome projects and Bioethics.
New Zealand Anti-Vivisection Society Inc
Acting as an information source for serious anti-vivisectionists throughout New Zealand this site focuses on the issue that vivisection is an unscientific method, that results in harm to human health.
RDS: Understanding Animal Research in Medicine
The RDS (Research Defence Society), looks at the ethics of using animals in medical research. It examines the research process, and animal welfare. This site also explores the medical benefits which have come from using animals in medical research.
Religious Human Reproductive and Therapeutic Cloning
A site that seperates the information and ethics of cloning specifically into Embryo cloning, Therapeutic cloning, and Reproductive cloning.

DNA Software Download

Chromas DNA Sequence Viewer (WIN)
Chromas is a Windows application which displays and prints chromatogram files from ABI automated DNA sequencers. Chromas 1.51 is shareware. The unregistered version is fully functional for 14 days, after which time registration is required.
4Peaks (OSX)
4Peaks is a program that helps molecular biologists to visualize and edit their DNA sequence files, providing a solution for analyzing trace files on the MacOSX platform. 4Peaks supports most commonly used sequence file formats. Students can download this Freeware program and use it to analyze a sample DNA sequence provided with the package.