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General Sites for Anatomy and Physiology

https://www.apsarchive.org - Teaching Resources
Extensive achieve of teaching resources for a variety of biology topics.
Anatomy Resources
Physiology Resources (approx. 1976 resources)
Human Physiology Lecture notes
Maintained by Gary Richardson from the Eastern Kentucky University. Lecture notes include: muscle, nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory systems, and blood & body defences.
Web Anatomy
An excellent interactive, multiple choice study tool designed for students who want to learn anatomy. You see a part of the human body labeled with numbers, choose the correct answer from a list and your answers are checked immediately.
Human Anatomy Body Systems
This site gives detailed information about the each of the human body systems.
Anatomy Resource Guide for Nursing Students
An overview of aspects of human anatomy and physiology, with diagrams, explanations, and self tests.


This web site provides easy, online access to government information on food and human nutrition.

Composition of Human Milk
Breastmilk is a complex fluid, rich in nutrients and in non-nutritional bioactive components. Knowledge of the composition of human milk and the factors that influence it has increased considerably over the past two decades. This web page briefly summarizes current understanding.

Human Anatomy Online: Digestive System
One of 10 types of systems on the site, this diagram shows parts of the digestive system, and clicking on the small buttons will provide more information on the chosen part.

Pathophysiology of the Digestive System
An introduction to the human digestive system. Then take a closer look at the structure and function of the stomach, liver, pancreas and intestines. Also covers the digestive physiology in different species.

Interactive Food Pyramid
A guide to daily food choices. The clickable pyramid provides you with examples of amounts and types of food that creates a balanced diet.

Food Pyramids and Plates: What Should You Really Eat?
The Harvard School of Public Health shows how to translate the food pyramid into what goes onto your plate.

What Does the Pancreas Do?
An introduction to the structure, endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas.

Your Digestive System and How It Works
Part of NIDDK website, a brief introduction to the digestive system: how food is digested, absorption and transport of nutrients, hormone regulators, and nerve regulators.

Support and Movement

Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
With use of photos this site looks at what muscles are and the various types, how they function, movement, mechanics of muscles. Sacomere structure, muscle contraction and reflexes, fibre types, motor unit recruitment
Energy Systems: Part 1
Part of the Nutrition and Health Online magazine. This is a brief introduction to the different energy systems types involved in the body's production of energy.
Exercise Physiology
A brief synopsis of the principles of exercise physiology muscle function, aerobic capacity, and Vo2 max.
Muscle Spindle and Stretch Reflexes
Part of the GKT computer aided learning website, this page contains information and diagrams on muscle spindle structure, fibre response, stretch reflexes and more.
Muscle Structure and Function 
Covers aspects of muscle structure and physiology. With the use of diagrams, this site looks at muscle fiber types, muscle growth, and lactic acid.
The Living Skeleton
There are eight sections that represent different areas of the human body, use your mouse to go to a gallery of image thumbnails and text describing each area with larger images. Each image is presented in two forms, labeled and unlabeled, which can be used for instruction and assessment.
The Structure & Function of Bones
Knowledge of the structure and function of bones and aspects of skeletal system generally are essential parts of training in many therapies, such as Massage, Aromatherapy, Acupuncture, Shiatsu, and others. This page is intended to include the detail required for most Basic / First Level Courses in these therapies, and some ITEC Diplomas.

Endocrine Systems

Hormones and their effects
Comprehensive, readable and well illustrated site aimed well for its target student audience. Focuses on sex hormones, inslin, GH, adrenaline, and ADH and includes quizzes to test understanding.
Drag and drop hormone match
A basic mix and match exercise to test understanding
The endocrine system
Text based summary of important aspects of endocrine control. Includes hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas, adrenals, gonads, and thyroid.
Tour of the endocrine system
Comprehensive coverage of the nature of hormones, receptors, and control systems, the mechanisms of hormone action, and the structural and functional organization of the endocrine system.
Endocrine topics (Marieb)
A basic step by step explanation of the important features of endocrine control. Includes glossary, narration, and quiz.

The Respiratory System

The Human Respiratory System
The inner surface of the thoracic cavity and the outer surface of the lungs are lined with pleural membranes which adhere to each other. If air is introduced between them, the adhesion is broken and the natural elasticity of the lung causes it to collapse. This can occur from trauma. And it is sometimes induced deliberately to allow the lung to rest. In either case, reinflation occurs as the air is gradually absorbed by the tissues...
Biotopics: The Human Respiratory System
Questions, answers and diagrams on the human respiratory system.
Human Physiology: Respiration
Primary function is to obtain oxygen for use by body's cells & eliminate carbon dioxide that cells produce. Includes respiratory airways leading into (& out of) lungs plus the lungs themselves. Pathway of air: nasal cavities (or oral cavity) > pharynx > trachea > primary bronchi (right & left) > secondary bronchi > tertiary bronchi > bronchioles > alveoli (site of gas exchange)

Circulatory System

American Heart Association
A directory site that directs the user to web sites investigating aspects of heart physiology: heart diseases and disorders, strokes, heart surgery, high blood pressure, diet, exercise, and their effects on the cardiovascular system.
Health Central: Heart Disease
This website gives broad coverage of heart disease, diagnosis, and treatment.
NOVA Online: Cut to the Heart
This site looks at how the heart works, how blood flows through the heart, has a photo gallery of diseased hearts, and learn about the pioneers of heart surgery.
The Cardiovascular System
Learn more about the cardiovascular system, the human heart, the components of blood, and more.
The Heart: A Virtual Exploration
Take a tour of the heart and discover the complexities of its development and structure. Follow the blood through the blood vessels and learn how to have a healthy heart.

Defence and the Immune System

Blood Types
An introduction to blood types and the ABO blood type system.
The Blood Typing Game
A fun, interactive game to help learn about the ABO blood types, and the importance of matching the right blood type in patients needing a transfusion. 
Immune Defense against Microbial Pathogens
Part of Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology, this article provides a significant amount of information on Inducible defenses, Antibody-mediated Immunity and Cell-mediated Immunity.
Microbiology and Immunology
The Biology Project site allows the browser to learn about a topic of interest using a question and answer format, with very useful tutorials. Contains additional activities and links to other sites.
Autoimmune Diseases
This site, part of National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, explains what what autoimmune diseases are, symptoms, treatments and research towards a cure.
Monoclonal Antibodies
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs for short) are an essential part of a molecular biologist's toolkit. But what exactly are these molecules? How and why are they used so extensively in molecular biology? The purpose of this web page is to answer these questions as best it can, and to direct you to further resources on the subject should you wish to research the topic more thoroughly.
Monoclonal Antibodies
Humans (and mice) have the ability to make antibodies able to recognize (by binding to) virtually any antigenic determinant (epitope) and to discriminate between even similar epitopes. Not only does this provide the basis for protection against disease organisms, but it makes antibodies attractive candidates to target other types of molecules found in the body
The Immune System - An Overview
A fact sheet on the organs and cells of the human immune system, as well as a synopsis of the immune response.
Understanding the Immune System
Slide show on the immune system. Includes self and non-self, the lymphatic system, antibodies, disorders and therapies, plus more.

Gas Exchange

All About Asthma
This site provides an easy to understand overview of asthma, it's causes.
What is Asthma?
This site is hosted by the NIH, and provides information about asthma, including it's causes, diagnosis, and treatments.
BBC: Gas Exchange
An animated diagram by the BBC showing the basics of gas exchange.
Lesson 11 - The Respiratory System
An introduction to the respiratory system. At the end of each page is a quiz to test yourself. Good for those with no prior knowledge.
Comparing Respiratory Systems
Part of the Online biology book, this chapter examines various methods of gas exchange in different organisms, the human respiratory system, diseases of the respiratory system, control of respiration, plus more.
The Respiratory System
This website provides images and details of the human respiratory system.
Tracheal Breathing
Uses photos and diagrams to explore the nature of tracheal breathing in insects and other invertebrates.


Anatomy of the Human Ear
An introduction to the anatomy of the human ear. Also includes a presentation of how the ear works.
Basic Neural Processes
Contains a collection of tutorials on basic neural functions, including the structure of the brain, and action potentials. Checks your answers as you progress through the tutorial.
Information on Drugs of Abuse
The NIDA website provides information on drug abuse and their effects on the human body. Includes LSD, inhalants, heroin, marijuana, ecstasy, nicotine, steroids, and more.
Neuroscience for Kids
Created for students and teachers wanting to learn more about the nervous system. Experiments and activities, and teaching resources are available. Also has a section on the effects of drug abuse on the nervous system.
The Human Eye
A good site, explaining with use of photos parts of the eye from rods, cones, lens and the retina to how colour blindness occurs.
The Secret Life of the Brain
Learn all about our brains at different stages of our lives , from a baby's brain to an ageing brain. Also contains a 3D anatomy, illusions of the brain, scanning the brain and more.
Virtual Tour of the Ear: The Hearing Mechanism
Learn with the use of diagrams the many parts that make up the ear, the peripheral hearing mechanism, central auditory mechanism as well as disorders associated with the ear.


Excretory System
Excellent site. Includes regulation of Extracellular fluids, nitrogen wastes, water and salt balance, excretory systems of invertebrates and vertebrates, kidney function, plus more.
The Kidney
This web page explores the structure and function of the human kidneys. Includes: the structure of the nephron, formation of the urine, tubular secretion, hormones of the kidneys, plus more.
Urinary System
Human Anatomy Online provides an interactive image of the urinary system, allowing users to click for more detailed information on the various components.


BBC -Control and Regulation
A simple revision and test covering negative feedback and osmoregulation.

Reproduction and Development

Atlanta Reproductive Health Center
This site provides useful overview of problems relating to reproduction, including: infertility, ovulation and hormone problems, reproductive surgery, IVF, GIFT, menopause, contraception, STD's, pregnancy, and childbirth.
Developmental Biology
This interactive site at The Biology Project, allows students to answer questions as they progress through the tutorial. Also linked to other related web sites.
Dynamic Development
This is a modular resource to facilitate learning in developmental biology. It covers: gametogenesis, sperm and egg to embryo, genetic regulation of development, organising the multicellular embryo, and generating cell diversity.
Effects of Drugs in Pregnancy
A brief introduction to the effects various drugs can have in pregnancy and on the newborn child.
Fertility UK: Physiology
Learn about the physiology of the female fertility cycle as well as male physiology, and monitoring these physiological changes.
Hormones of the Reproductive System
This site, part of Kimball's Biology Pages, looks at the hormones of the human reproductive system: estrogen's and progesterone, and the role of hormones on the menstrual cycle.
Hormones in the Menstrual Cycle
Provides a good overview of the role of  hormones in controlling the menstrual cycle.
UNSW Embryology
Part of the UNSW embryology site this part details the Serial Sections Carnegie Stage 22 of the human embryo, using data and images from the Kyoto Collection.